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54

The nine delegates to the Economic Cooperation Conference include $2$ officials from Mexico, $3$ officials from Canada, and $4$ officials from the United States. During the opening session, three of the delegates fall asleep. Assuming that the three sleepers were determined randomly, find the probability that exactly two of the sleepers are from the same country.


93
A token starts at the point $(0,0)$ of an $xy$-coordinate grid and then makes a sequence of six moves. Each move is 1 unit in a direction parallel to one of the coordinate axes. Each move is selected randomly from the four possible directions and independently of the other moves. Find the probability the token ends at a point on the graph of $|y|=|x|$.

210

Find the number of positive integers with three not necessarily distinct digits, $abc$, with $a \neq 0$ and $c \neq 0$ such that both $abc$ and $cba$ are multiples of $4$.


212
Nine people sit down for dinner where there are three choices of meals. Three people order the beef meal, three order the chicken meal, and three order the fish meal. The waiter serves the nine meals in random order. Find the number of ways in which the waiter could serve the meal types to the nine people so that exactly one person receives the type of meal ordered by that person.

227
At a certain university, the division of mathematical sciences consists of the departments of mathematics, statistics, and computer science. There are two male and two female professors in each department. A committee of six professors is to contain three men and three women and must also contain two professors from each of the three departments. Find the number of possible committees that can be formed subject to these requirements.

251
Six men and some number of women stand in a line in random order. Let $p$ be the probability that a group of at least four men stand together in the line, given that every man stands next to at least one other man. Find the least number of women in the line such that $p$ does not exceed $1$ percent.

How many $4$-digit positive integers have four different digits, where the leading digit is not zero, the integer is a multiple of $5$, and $5$ is the largest digit?

How many $4$-digit numbers greater than $1000$ are there that use the four digits of $2012$?

Four fair six-sided dice are rolled. What is the probability that at least three of the four dice show the same value?

Central High School is competing against Northern High School in a backgammon match. Each school has three players, and the contest rules require that each player play two games against each of the other school's players. The match takes place in six rounds, with three games played simultaneously in each round. In how many different ways can the match be scheduled?

Two subsets of the set $S=\{ a,b,c,d,e\}$ are to be chosen so that their union is $S$ and their intersection contains exactly two elements. In how many ways can this be done, assuming that the order in which the subsets are chosen does not matter?


Let $S$ be the string $0101010101010$. Determine the number of substrings containing an odd number of $1$'s. (A substring is defined by a pair of (not necessarily distinct) characters of the string and represents the characters between, inclusively, the two elements of the string.)

There are $2$ white balls, $3$ red balls, and $1$ yellow balls in a jar. How many different ways are there to retrieve $3$ balls to form a line?

A word is an ordered, non-empty sequence of letters, such as word or wrod. How many distinct words can be made from a subset of the letters $\textit{c, o, m, b, o}$, where each letter in the list is used no more than the number of times it appears?

Tina randomly selects two distinct numbers from the set $\{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 \}$, and Sergio randomly selects a number from the set $\{ 1, 2, ..., 10 \}$. What is the probability that Sergio's number is larger than the sum of the two numbers chosen by Tina?

Alice refuses to sit next to either Bob or Carla. Derek refuses to sit next to Eric. How many ways are there for the five of them to sit in a row of $5$ chairs under these conditions?

Kathy has $5$ red cards and $5$ green cards. She shuffles the $10$ cards and lays out $5$ of the cards in a row in a random order. She will be happy if and only if all the red cards laid out are adjacent and all the green cards laid out are adjacent. For example, card orders $RRGGG$, $GGGGR$, or $RRRRR$ will make Kathy happy, but $RRRGR$ will not. Find the probability that Kathy will be happy.


Find the number of four-element subsets of $\{1,2,3,4,\dots, 20\}$ with the property that two distinct elements of a subset have a sum of $16$, and two distinct elements of a subset have a sum of $24$. For example, $\{3,5,13,19\}$ and $\{6,10,20,18\}$ are two such subsets.


For every subset $T$ of $U = \{ 1,2,3,\ldots,18 \}$, let $s(T)$ be the sum of the elements of $T$, with $s(\emptyset)$ defined to be $0$. If $T$ is chosen at random among all subsets of $U$, the probability that $s(T)$ is divisible by $3$ is $\frac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m$.


Find the number of permutations of $1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6$ such that for each $k$ with $1$ $\leq$ $k$ $\leq$ $5$, at least one of the first $k$ terms of the permutation is greater than $k$.


Let $T$ be the triangle in the coordinate plane with vertices $\left(0,0\right)$, $\left(4,0\right)$, and $\left(0,3\right)$. Consider the following five isometries (rigid transformations) of the plane: rotations of $90^{\circ}$, $180^{\circ}$, and $270^{\circ}$ counterclockwise around the origin, reflection across the $x$-axis, and reflection across the $y$-axis. How many of the $125$ sequences of three of these transformations (not necessarily distinct) will return $T$ to its original position? (For example, a $180^{\circ}$ rotation, followed by a reflection across the $x$-axis, followed by a reflection across the $y$-axis will return $T$ to its original position, but a $90^{\circ}$ rotation, followed by a reflection across the $x$-axis, followed by another reflection across the $x$-axis will not return $T$ to its original position.)


How many even $4$- digit integers are there whose digits are distinct?