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A $7\times 1$ board is completely covered by $m\times 1$ tiles without overlap; each tile may cover any number of consecutive squares, and each tile lies completely on the board. Each tile is either red, blue, or green. Let $N$ be the number of tilings of the $7\times 1$ board in which all three colors are used at least once. For example, a $1\times 1$ red tile followed by a $2\times 1$ green tile, a $1\times 1$ green tile, a $2\times 1$ blue tile, and a $1\times 1$ green tile is a valid tiling. Note that if the $2\times 1$ blue tile is replaced by two $1\times 1$ blue tiles, this results in a different tiling. Find $N$.

Six men and some number of women stand in a line in random order. Let $p$ be the probability that a group of at least four men stand together in the line, given that every man stands next to at least one other man. Find the least number of women in the line such that $p$ does not exceed $1$ percent.

Define an ordered quadruple of integers $(a, b, c, d)$ as interesting if $1 \le a < b < c < d \le 10$, and $a+d>b+c$. How many interesting ordered quadruples are there?


A parking lot has $16$ spaces in a row. Twelve cars arrive, each of which requires one parking space, and their drivers chose spaces at random from among the available spaces. Auntie Em then arrives in her SUV, which requires $2$ adjacent spaces. What is the probability that she is able to park?

Eight people are sitting around a circular table, each holding a fair coin. All eight people flip their coins and those who flip heads stand while those who flip tails remain seated. What is the probability that no two adjacent people will stand?

How many collections of six positive, odd integers have a sum of $18$? Note that $1 + 1 + 1 + 3 + 3 + 9$ and $9 + 1 + 3 + 1 + 3 + 1$ are considered to be the same collection.

Team MAS won a total of $10$ gold medals in a $6$-day tournament. It won at least one gold medal every day. How many different possibilities are there to count the number of gold medals won each day?

Find the number of positive integer solutions to the following equation: $$x_1+x_2+\cdots+x_5=14$$

There are $2$ white balls, $3$ red balls, and $1$ yellow ball in a jar. How many different ways are there to retrieve $3$ balls?

A total of $2018$ tickets, numbered $1$, $2$, $3$, $\cdots$, $2014$, $2015$ are placed in an empty bag. Alfrid removes ticket $a$ from the bag. Bernice then removes ticket $b$ from the bag. Finally, Charlie removes ticket $c$ from the bag. They notice that $a < b < c$ and $a + b + c = 2018$. In how many ways could this happen?

Pat is to select six cookies from a tray containing only chocolate chip, oatmeal, and peanut butter cookies. There are at least six of each of these three kinds of cookies on the tray. How many different assortments of six cookies can be selected?

For some particular value of $N$, when $(a+b+c+d+1)^N$ is expanded and like terms are combined, the resulting expression contains exactly $1001$ terms that include all four variables $a, b,c,$ and $d$, each to some positive power. What is $N$?

Assuming a small packet of mm’s can contain anywhere from $20$ to $40$ mm’s in $6$ different colours. How many different mm packets are possible?

Find the number of non-negative integer solutions to the following equation: $$x_1+x_2+\cdots+x_5=14$$

Find the number of integer solutions to the following equation: $$x_1+x_2+\cdots+x_6=12$$

where $x_1, x_5\ge 0$ and $x_2, x_3, x_4 > 0$

Find the number of non-decrease sequences of length $n$ and each element is a non-negative integer not exceeding $d$.

Find, with proof, all pairs of positive integers $(n, d)$ with the following property: for every integer $S$, there exists a unique non-decreasing sequence of n integers $a_1$, $a_2$, $\cdots$, $a_n$ such that $a_1 + a_2 + \cdots + a_n = S$ and $a_n-a_1 = d$.

Find the number of ordered quadruples of integer $(a, b, c, d)$ satisfying $1\le a < b < c < d \le 10$.

How many different ways are there to make a payment of $n$ dollars using any number of $\$1$ and $\$2$ bills?

Find the number of integer solutions to the equation $a+b+c=6$ where $-1 \le a < 2$ and $1\le b,\ c\le 4$.

Let $\mathbb{A}=\{a_1,\ a_2,\ \cdots,\ a_{100}\}$ be a set containing $100$ real numbers, $\mathbb{B}=\{b_1,\ b_2,\ \cdots,\ b_{50}\}$ be a set containing $50$ real numbers, and $\mathcal{F}$ be a mapping from $\mathbb{A}$ to $\mathbb{B}$. Find the number of possible $\mathcal{F}$ if  $\mathcal{F}(a_1) \le \mathcal{F}(a_2)\le\cdots\mathcal{F}(a_1)$, and for every $b_i\in\mathbb{B}$, there exists an element $a_i\in\mathbb{A}$ such that the $\mathcal{F}(a_i)=b_i$.

How many ways are there to arrange $8$ girls and $25$ boys to sit around a table so that there are at least $2$ boys between any pair of girls? If a sitting plan can be simply rotated to match another one, these two are treated as the same.

Find the number of non-negative integer solutions to the equation $$2x_1+x_2+x_3+\cdots+x_9+x_{10}=3$$

Let $\mathbb{S}=\{1,\ 2,\ 3,\ \cdots,\ n\}$ and positive integer $m$ satisfying $n + 1\ge 2m$. Find the number of subsets of $\mathbb{S}$ which has $m$ elements and no two elements are consecutive.

How many ordered integers $(x_1,\ x_2,\ x_3,\ x_4)$ are there such that $0 < x_1 \le x_2\le x_3\le x_4 < 7$?