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There are $n$ points, $A_1$, $A_2$, $\cdots$, $A_n$ on a line segment, $\overline{A_0A_{n+1}}$. The point $A_0$ is black, $A_{n+1}$ is white, and the rest points are colored randomly either black or white. Prove: among these $n+1$ line segments $A_kA_{k+1}$, where $k=0, 1, \cdots, n$, the number of those with different colored ending points is odd.


Two cubical dice each have removable numbers $1$ through $6$. The twelve numbers on the two dice are removed, put into a bag, then drawn one at a time and randomly reattached to the faces of the cubes, one number to each face. The dice are then rolled and the numbers on the two top faces are added. What is the probability that the sum is $7$?

A highly valued secretive recipe is kept in a safe with multiple locks. Keys to these locks are distributed among 9 members of the managing committee. The established rule requires that at least 6 members must present in order to open the safe. What is the minimal number of locks required? Correspondingly, how many keys are required?

Two dice appear to be normal dice with their faces numbered from $1$ to $6$, but each die is weighted so that the probability of rolling the number $k$ is directly proportional to $k$. The probability of rolling a $7$ with this pair of dice is $\frac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

Let $N$ be the number of possible ways to pick up two adjacent squares in a $(n\times m)$ grid. Find $N$.


How many ordered integers $(x_1,\ x_2,\ x_3,\ x_4)$ are there such that $0 < x_1 \le x_2\le x_3\le x_4 < 7$?