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An urn contains $4$ green balls and $6$ blue balls. A second urn contains $16$ green balls and $N$ blue balls. A single ball is drawn at random from each urn. The probability that both balls are of the same color is $0.58$. Find $N$.

Arnold is studying the prevalence of three health risk factors, denoted by $A$, $B$, and $C$, within a population of men. For each of the three factors, the probability that a randomly selected man in the population has only this risk factor (and none of the others) is $0.1$. For any two of the three factors, the probability that a randomly selected man has exactly these two risk factors (but not the third) is $0.14$. The probability that a randomly selected man has all three risk factors, given that he has $A$ and $B$ is $\frac{1}{3}$. Find the probability that a man has none of the three risk factors given that he does not have risk factor $A$.

Charles has two six-sided die. One of the die is fair, and the other die is biased so that it comes up six with probability $\frac{2}{3}$ and each of the other five sides has probability $\frac{1}{15}$. Charles chooses one of the two dice at random and rolls it three times. Given that the first two rolls are both sixes, find the probability that the third roll will also be a six.

Let $P(x) = x^2 - 3x - 9$. A real number $x$ is chosen at random from the interval $5 \le x \le 15$. The probability that $\lfloor\sqrt{P(x)}\rfloor = \sqrt{P(\lfloor x \rfloor)}$ is equal to $\frac{\sqrt{a} + \sqrt{b} + \sqrt{c} - d}{e}$ , where $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$, and $e$ are positive integers. Find $a + b + c + d + e$.

A point $P$ is chosen at random in the interior of a unit square $S$. Let $d(P)$ denote the distance from $P$ to the closest side of $S$. The probability that $\frac{1}{5}\le d(P)\le\frac{1}{3}$ is equal to $\frac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

The Tigers beat the Sharks $2$ out of $3$ times they played. They then played $N$ more times, and the Sharks ended up winning at least $95\%$ of all the games played. What is the minimum possible value for $N$?

Larry and Julius are playing a game, taking turns throwing a ball at a bottle sitting on a ledge. Larry throws first. The winner is the first person to knock the bottle off the ledge. At each turn the probability that a player knocks the bottle off the ledge is $\tfrac{1}{2}$, independently of what has happened before. What is the probability that Larry wins the game?

At Rachelle's school an $A$ counts 4 points, a $B$ 3 points, a $C$ 2 points, and a $D$ 1 point. Her GPA on the four classes she is taking is computed as the total sum of points divided by 4. She is certain that she will get $A$s in both Mathematics and Science, and at least a $C$ in each of English and History. She thinks she has a $\tfrac{1}{6}$ chance of getting an $A$ in English, and a $\tfrac{1}{4}$ chance of getting a $B$. In History, she has a $\tfrac{1}{4}$ chance of getting an $A$, and a $\tfrac{1}{3}$ chance of getting a $B$, independently of what she gets in English. What is the probability that Rachelle will get a GPA of at least 3.5?

An unfair coin lands on heads with a probability of $\tfrac{1}{4}$. When tossed $n$ times, the probability of exactly two heads is the same as the probability of exactly three heads. What is the value of $n$ ?

A bag initially had blue, red and purple gumballs in the ratio of $2:3:4$. Five red gumballs are added to the bag. The probability of randomly drawing a red gumball is now $40%$. How many gumballs are now in the bag?

Fifty tickets numbered with consecutive integers are in a jar. Two are drawn at random and without replacement. What is the probability that the absolute difference between the two numbers is $10$ or less?

Let $S$ be the set $\{1,2,3,...,19\}$. For $a,b \in S$, define $a \succ b$ to mean that either $0 < a - b \le 9$ or $b - a > 9$. How many ordered triples $(x,y,z)$ of elements of $S$ have the property that $x \succ y$, $y \succ z$, and $z \succ x$?

Alex, Mel, and Chelsea play a game that has $6$ rounds. In each round there is a single winner, and the outcomes of the rounds are independent. For each round the probability that Alex wins is $\frac{1}{2}$, and Mel is twice as likely to win as Chelsea. What is the probability that Alex wins three rounds, Mel wins two rounds, and Chelsea wins one round?

Two real numbers are selected independently and at random from the interval $[-20,10]$. What is the probability that the product of those numbers is greater than zero?

A region $S$ in the complex plane is defined by $S = \{x + iy: - 1\le x\le1, - 1\le y\le1\}.$ A complex number $z = x + iy$ is chosen uniformly at random from $S$. What is the probability that $\left(\frac34 + \frac34i\right)z$ is also in $S$?

Two circles of radius 1 are to be constructed as follows. The center of circle $A$ is chosen uniformly and at random from the line segment joining $(0,0)$ and $(2,0)$. The center of circle $B$ is chosen uniformly and at random, and independently of the first choice, from the line segment joining $(0,1)$ to $(2,1)$. What is the probability that circles $A$ and $B$ intersect?

A traffic light runs repeatedly through the following cycle: green for $30$ seconds, then yellow for $3$ seconds, and then red for $30$ seconds. Leah picks a random three-second time interval to watch the light. What is the probability that the color changes while she is watching?

On a standard die one of the dots is removed at random with each dot equally likely to be chosen. The die is then rolled. What is the probability that the top face has an odd number of dots?

Six ants simultaneously stand on the six vertices of a regular octahedron, with each ant at a different vertex. Simultaneously and independently, each ant moves from its vertex to one of the four adjacent vertices, each with equal probability. What is the probability that no two ants arrive at the same vertex?

A five-legged Martian has a drawer full of socks, each of which is red, white or blue, and there are at least five socks of each color. The Martian pulls out one sock at a time without looking. How many socks must the Martian remove from the drawer to be certain there will be 5 socks of the same color?

Jeff rotates spinners $P$, $Q$ and $R$ and adds the resulting numbers. What is the probability that his sum is an odd number? Two cards are dealt from a deck of four red cards labeled $A$, $B$, $C$, $D$ and four green cards labeled $A$, $B$, $C$, $D$. A winning pair is two of the same color or two of the same letter. What is the probability of drawing a winning pair?

Eight points are spaced around at intervals of one unit around a $2 \times 2$ square, as shown. Two of the $8$ points are chosen at random. What is the probability that the two points are one unit apart? The two spinners shown are spun once and each lands on one of the numbered sectors. What is the probability that the sum of the numbers in the two sectors is prime? A three-digit integer contains one of each of the digits $1$, $3$, and $5$. What is the probability that the integer is divisible by $5$?