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While playing table tennis against Jordan, Chad came up with a new way of scoring. After the first point, the score is regarded as a ratio. Whenever possible, the ratio is reduced to its simplest form. For example, if Chad scores the first two points of the game, the score is reduced from $2:0$ to $1:0$. If later in the game Chad has $5$ points and Jordan has $9$, and Chad scores a point, the score is automatically reduced from $6:9$ to $2:3$. Chad's next point would tie the game at $1:1$. Like normal table tennis, a player wins if he or she is the first to obtain $21$ points. However, he or she does not win if after his or her receipt of the $21^{st}$ point, the score is immediately reduced. Chad and Jordan start at $0:0$ and finish the game using this rule, after which Jordan notes a curiosity: the score was never reduced. How many possible games could they have played? Two games are considered the same if and only if they include the exact same sequence of scoring.

Find the greatest integer less than $$1+\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}+\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}+\cdots+\frac{1}{\sqrt{1000000}}$$

Suppose that $P(x)$ is a polynomial with the property such that there exists another polynomial $Q(x)$ to satisfy $P(x)Q(x)=P(x^2)$. $P(x)$ and $Q(x)$ may have complex coefficients. If $P(x)$ is quintic (i.e. has a degree of $5$) with roots $r_1, \cdots, r_5$, find all the possible values of $|r_1|+|r_2|+\cdots+|r_5|$.

Find one root to $\sqrt{3}x^7 + x^4 + 2=0$.

Show that if a polynomial $P(x)$ satisfies $P(2x^2-1)=(P(x))^2/2$, then it must be a constant.

Suppose $\alpha$ and $\beta$ be two real roots of $x^2-px+q=0$ where $p$ and $q\ne 0$ are two real numbers. Let sequence $\{a_n\}$ satisfies $a_1=p$, $a_2=p^2-q$, and $a_n=pa_{n-1}-qa_{n-2}$ for $n > 2$.
• Express $a_n$ using $\alpha$ and $\beta$.
• If $p=1$ and $q=\frac{1}{4}$, find the sum of first $n$ terms of $\{a_n\}$.

• Find an expression for $x_n$ if sequence $\{x_n\}$ satisfies $x_1=2$, $x_2=3$, and $$\left\{ \begin{array}{ccll} x_{2k+1}&=&x_{2k} +x_{2k-1}&\quad (k\ge 1)\\ x_{2k}&=&x_{2k-1} + 2x_{2k-2}&\quad (k\ge 2) \end{array} \right.$$

Expanding $$\Big(\sqrt{x}+\frac{1}{2\sqrt[4]{x}}\Big)^n$$ and arranging all the terms in descending order of $x$'s power, if the coefficients of the first three terms form an arithmetic sequence, how many terms with integer power of $x$ are there?

Suppose sequence $\{F_n\}$ is defined as $$F_n=\frac{1}{\sqrt{5}}\Big[\Big(\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\Big)^n-\Big(\frac{1-\sqrt{5}}{2}\Big)^n\Big]$$ for all $n\in\mathbb{N}$. Let $$S_n=C_n^1\cdot F_1 + C_n^2\cdot F_2+\cdots +C_n^n\cdot F_n.$$ Find all positive integer $n$ such that $S_n$ is divisible by 8.

Find all functions $f:\mathbb{Q}\rightarrow\mathbb{Q}$ such that the Cauchy equation $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$$ holds for all $x, q\in\mathbb{Q}$.

Let real numbers $a, b, c, d$ satisfy $$\left\{ \begin{array}{ccl} ax+by&=3\\ ax^2+by^2&=7\\ ax^3+by^3&=16\\ ax^4 + by^4 &=42 \end{array} \right.$$ Find $ax^5+by^5$.

If for any non-negative real numbers $x$ and $y$, function $f(x)$ satisfies the properties that $f(x)\ge 0$, $f(1)\ne 0$, and $f(x+y^2)=f(x)+2f^2(y)$ , compute the value of $f(2+\sqrt{3})$.

Let real numbers $a$, $b$, and $c$ satisfy $a+b+c=2$ and $abc=4$. Find
• the minimal value of the largest among $a$, $b$, and $c$.
• the minimal value of $\mid a\mid +\mid b \mid +\mid c \mid$.

• If all roots of the equation $$x^4-16x^3+(81-2a)x^2 +(16a-142)x+(a^2-21a+68)=0$$ are integers, find the value of $a$ and solve this equation.

Suppose the graph of $f(x)=x^4 + ax^3 + bx^2 + cd + d$, where $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$ are all real constants, passes through three points $A \big(2,\frac{1}{2}\big)$, $B \big(3, \frac{1}{3}\big)$, and $C \big(4, \frac{1}{4}\big)$. Find the value of $f(1) + f(5)$.

If all coefficients of the polynomial $$f(x)=a_nx^n + a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_3x^3+x^2+x+1=0$$ are real numbers, prove that its roots cannot be all real.

Prove there cannot exist a $998$-degree polynomial with real number coefficients $P(x)$ such that $$[P(x)]^2-1=P(x^2+1)$$ holds for any $x\in\mathbb{C}$.

Show that neither $385^{97}$ nor $366^{17}$ can be expressed as the sum of cubes of some consecutive integers.

For nonnegative integers $a$ and $b$ with $a + b \leq 6$, let $T(a, b) = \binom{6}{a} \binom{6}{b} \binom{6}{a + b}$. If $S$ denotes the sum of all $T(a, b)$, where $a$ and $b$ are nonnegative integers with $a + b \leq 6$. Find $S$.

Let $x$ be an integer and $p$ is a prime divisor of $(x^6 + x^5 + \cdots + 1)$. Show that $p=7$ or $p\equiv 1\pmod{7}$.

Find the minimum possible value of $\frac{a}{b^3+4}+\frac{b}{c^3+4}+\frac{c}{d^3+4}+\frac{d}{a^3+4}$given that $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$ are nonnegative real numbers such that $a+b+c+d=4$.

Prove that there are infinitely many distinct pairs $(a,b)$ of relatively prime positive integers $a > 1$ and $b > 1$ such that $(a^b + b^a)$ is divisible by $(a + b)$.

The function $f$ satisfies $f(0)=0$, $f(1)=1$, and $f(\frac{x+y}{2})=\frac{f(x)+f(y)}{2}$ for all $x,y\in\mathbb{R}$. Show that $f(x)=x$ for all rational numbers $x$.

Determine all three-digit numbers $N$ having the property that $N$ is divisible by 11, and $\dfrac{N}{11}$ is equal to the sum of the squares of the digits of $N$.

There are three piles which contain $8$, $9$, and $19$ stones, respectively. You are allowed to choose two piles and transfer one stone from each of them to the third pile. Is it possible to make all piles all contain exactly $12$ stones after several such operations?