Practice (Challenging)

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For positive integers $n$ and $k$, let $f(n, k)$ be the remainder when $n$ is divided by $k$, and for $n > 1$ let $F(n) =\displaystyle\max_{\substack{1\le k\le \frac{n}{2}}} f(n, k)$. Find the remainder when $\sum\limits_{n=20}^{100} F(n)$ is divided by $1000$.


There are $N$ permutations $(a_{1}, a_{2}, ... , a_{30})$ of $1, 2, \ldots, 30$ such that for $m \in \left\{{2, 3, 5}\right\}$, $m$ divides $(a_{n+m} - a_{n})$ for all integers $n$ with $1 \leq n < n+m \leq 30$. Find $N$.

Prove that there are infinitely many positive integers $n$ such that $(n^2+1)$ divides $n!$.

Find all integers $a$, $b$, $c$ with $1 < a < b < c$ such that the number $(a-1)(b-1)(c-1)$ is a divisor of $(abc-1)$.

Show that the equation $x^2 + y^3 = z^4$ has infinitely many integer solutions.

Find all $n\in\mathbb{N}$ such that $$\binom{n}{k-1} = 2 \binom{n}{k} + \binom{n}{k+1}$$

for some natural number $k < n$.

Let $p$ be a prime. Prove that the equation $x^2-py^2 = -1$ has integral solution if and only if $p=2$ or $p\equiv 1\pmod{4}$.

If $p$ is a prime of the form $4k+3$, show that exactly one of the equations $x^2-py^2=\pm 2$ has an integral solution.

Show that $3^n-2$ is a square only for $n=1$ and $n=3$.

Find the maximal value of $m^2+n^2$ if $m$ and $n$ are integers between $1$ and $1981$ satisfying $(n^2-mn-m^2)^2=1$.

Let sequence $\{a_n\}$ satisfy $a_0=0, a_1=1$, and $a_n = 2a_{n-1}+a_{n-2}$. Show that $2^k\mid n$ if and only if $2^k\mid a_n$.

Let $\{a_n\}$ be a sequence defined as $a_n=\lfloor{n\sqrt{2}}\rfloor$ where $\lfloor{x}\rfloor$ indicates the largest integer not exceeding $x$. Show that this sequence has infinitely many square numbers.

Let sequence $g(n)$ satisfy $g(1)=0, g(2)=1, g(n+2)=g(n+1)+g(n)+1$ where $n\ge 1$. Show that if $n$ is a prime greater than 5, then $n\mid g(n)[g(n)+1]$.

Is it possible to arrange these numbers, $1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, \cdots, 1986, 1986$ to form a sequence for such there is $1$ number between two $1$'s, $2$ numbers between two $2$'s, $\cdots$, $1986$ numbers between two 1986's?

$\textbf{Cards Game (Sum Fifteen)}$

There are nine cards laid out on a table, numbered $1$ through $9$. Two players, Joe and John, take turns to pick up one card a time (and once a card is picked up, it is out of play). As soon as one of these two players has the sum of three of cards equal $15$ , that player wins. Who will win if both players adopt the best strategy?

Solve in positive integers the equation $3^x + 4^y = 5^z$ .

Solve in positive integers the equation $8^x + 15^y = 17^z$.

How many terms with odd coefficients are there in the expanded form of $$((x+1)(x+2)\cdots(x+2015))^{2016}$$

Compute $$\sqrt{6+2\sqrt{7+3\sqrt{8+\cdots}}}$$

Show that every integer $k > 1$ has a multiple which is less than $k^4$ and can be written in base 10 using at most 4 different digits.

$\textbf{Prisoners' Problem}$

One hundred prisoners will be lined up. Each one will be assigned either a red hat or a blue hat. No one can see the color of his or her own hat. However, each person is able to see the color of the hat worn by every person in front of him or her. That is, for example, the last person in line can see the colors of the hats on $99$ people in front of him or her; and the first person, who is at the front of the line, cannot see the color of any hat. Beginning with the last person in line, and then moving to the $99^{th}$ person, the $98^{th}$, etc., each will be asked to name the color of his or her own hat. He or she can only answer "red" or "blue". If the color is correctly named, the person lives; if not, the person is shot dead on the spot. Everyone in line is able to hear all the responses but not the gunshots. Before being lined up, the $100$ prisoners are allowed to discuss a strategy aiming to save as many of them as possible. How many people can be saved if they can agree on a good strategy?

As a more challenging question, what if the hats can have $100$ known different colors instead of $2$?

Let $\Gamma$ be the circumcircle of acute triangle $ABC$. Points $D$ and $E$ are on segments $AB$ and $AC$ respectively such that $AD = AE$. The perpendicular bisectors of $BD$ and $CE$ intersect minor arcs $AB$ and $AC$ of $\Gamma$ at points $F$ and $G$ respectively. Prove that lines $DE$ and $FG$ are either parallel or they are the same line.

Find all numbers $n \ge 3$ for which there exists real numbers $a_1, a_2, ..., a_{n+2}$ satisfying $a_{n+1} = a_1, a_{n+2} = a_2$ and\[a_{i}a_{i+1} + 1 = a_{i+2}\]for $i = 1, 2, ..., n.$

An anti-Pascal triangle is an equilateral triangular array of numbers such that, except for the numbers in the bottom row, each number is the absolute value of the difference of the two numbers immediately below it. For example, the following is an anti-Pascal triangle with four rows which contains every integer from $1$ to $10$

\[4\]\[2\quad 6\]\[5\quad 7 \quad 1\]\[8\quad 3 \quad 10 \quad 9\]

Does there exist an anti-Pascal triangle with $2018$ rows which contains every integer from $1$ to $1 + 2 + 3 + \dots + 2018$?

A site is any point $(x, y)$ in the plane such that $x$ and $y$ are both positive integers less than or equal to 20. Initially, each of the 400 sites is unoccupied. Amy and Ben take turns placing stones with Amy going first. On her turn, Amy places a new red stone on an unoccupied site such that the distance between any two sites occupied by red stones is not equal to $\sqrt{5}$. On his turn, Ben places a new blue stone on any unoccupied site. (A site occupied by a blue stone is allowed to be at any distance from any other occupied site.) They stop as soon as a player cannot place a stone. Find the greatest $K$ such that Amy can ensure that she places at least $K$ red stones, no matter how Ben places his blue stones.