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Let $n$ be a positive integer, prove that in this series $$\Big\lfloor{\frac{n}{1}}\Big\rfloor, \Big\lfloor{\frac{n}{2}}\Big\rfloor, \Big\lfloor{\frac{n}{3}}\Big\rfloor \cdots \Big\lfloor{\frac{n}{n}}\Big\rfloor$$, there are less than $2\sqrt{n}$ integers distinct.

Steve is piling $m \geq 1$ indistinguishable stones on the squares of an $n\times n$ grid. Each square can have an arbitrarily high pile of stones. After he finished piling his stones in some manner, he can then perform stone moves, defined as follows. Consider any four grid squares, which are corners of a rectangle, i.e. in positions $(i, k), (i, l), (j, k), (j, l)$ for some $1\leq i, j, k, l \leq n$, such that $i < j$ and $k < l$. A stone move consists of either removing one stone from each of $(i, k)$ and $(j, l)$ and moving them to $(i, l)$ and $(j, k)$ respectively,j or removing one stone from each of $(i, l)$ and $(j, k)$ and moving them to $(i, k)$ and $(j, l)$ respectively. Two ways of piling the stones are equivalent if they can be obtained from one another by a sequence of stone moves. How many different non-equivalent ways can Steve pile the stones on the grid?

For each integer $n \ge 2$, let $A(n)$ be the area of the region in the coordinate plane defined by the inequalities $1\le x \le n$ and $0\le y \le x \left\lfloor \sqrt x \right\rfloor$, where $\left\lfloor \sqrt x \right\rfloor$ is the greatest integer not exceeding $\sqrt x$. Find the number of values of $n$ with $2\le n \le 1000$ for which $A(n)$ is an integer.


Let $A={1,2,3,4}$, and $f$ and $g$ be randomly chosen (not necessarily distinct) functions from $A$ to $A$. Find the probability that the range of $f$ and the range of $g$ are disjoint.

Find that largest integer $A$ that satisfies the following property: in any permutation of the sequence $1001$, $1002$, $1003$, $\cdots$, $2000$, it is always possible to find $10$ consecutive terms whose sum is no less than $A$.


For positive integers $n$ and $k$, let $f(n, k)$ be the remainder when $n$ is divided by $k$, and for $n > 1$ let $F(n) =\displaystyle\max_{\substack{1\le k\le \frac{n}{2}}} f(n, k)$. Find the remainder when $\sum\limits_{n=20}^{100} F(n)$ is divided by $1000$.

Prove: randomly select 51 numbers from $1, 2, 3, \cdots, 100$, at least two of them must be relatively prime to each other.

Is it possible to equally divide the set {$1, 2, 3, \cdots, 972$} into 12 non-intersect subsets so that each subset has exactly 81 elements, and the sums of those subsets are all equal?

There are $n$ points, $A_1$, $A_2$, $\cdots$, $A_n$ on a line segment, $\overline{A_0A_{n+1}}$. The point $A_0$ is black, $A_{n+1}$ is white, and the rest points are colored randomly either black or white. Prove: among these $n+1$ line segments $A_kA_{k+1}$, where $k=0, 1, \cdots, n$, the number of those with different colored ending points is odd.

Let $a_1$, $a_2$, $a_3$, $\cdots$, $a_n$ be a random permutation of $1$, $2$, $3$, .., $n$, where $n$ is an odd number. Prove $$(a_1-1)(a_2-2)\cdots(a_n-n)$$ is an even number.

Back in 1930, Tillie had to memorize her multiplication facts from $0 \times 0$ to $12 \times 12$. The multiplication table she was given had rows and columns labeled with the factors, and the products formed the body of the table. To the nearest hundredth, what fraction of the numbers in the body of the table are odd?


This graph shows the water temperature T degrees at time t minutes for a pot of water placed on a stove and heated to 100 degrees. On average, how many degrees did the temperature increase each minute during the first $8$ minutes?

For how many integer values of $k$ do the graphs of $x^2+y^2=k^2$ and $xy = k$ not intersect?

Let a, b, c, d, and e be distinct integers such that $(6-a)(6-b)(6-c)(6-d)(6-e)=45$ What is $a+b+c+d+e$?

What is the area enclosed by the graph of $|3x|+|4y|=12$?

Suppose m and n are positive odd integers. Which of the following must also be an odd integer?

The graph shows the constant rate at which Suzanna rides her bike. If she rides a total of a half an hour at the same speed, how many miles would she have ridden?

If $x^m - y^n = (x+y^2)(x-y^2)(x^2+y^4)$, find the value of $m+n$.

Prove: if $a$, $b$, $c$ are all odd integers, then there exists no rational number $x$ which can satisfy the equation $ax^2 + bx + c = 0$.

Prove: randomly select $51$ numbers from $1$, $2$, $3$, $\dots$, $100$, there must exist two numbers for which one is a multiple of the other.

Prove: it is impossible to have two positive integers such that the product of their sum and their difference equals 1990.

17 people attend a party. Prove: it is impossible that everyone exactly shakes hands with 3 other attendees.

Let $n>1$ be a positive integer. Prove $1+\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}+\cdots + \frac{1}{n}$ cannot be a whole integer.

The graph shows the price of five gallons of gasoline during the first ten months of the year. By what percent is the highest price more than the lowest price?

The graph shows the number of minutes studied by both Asha (black bar) and Sasha (grey bar) in one week. On the average, how many more minutes per day did Sasha study than Asha?