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Compute the value of $$\sum_{k=0}^{n}\frac{1}{2^k}\binom{n+k}{n}$$


Let $\mathbb{N}$ be the set containing all positive integers. Is it possible to partition $\mathbb{N}$ to more than one but still a finite number of arithmetic sequences with no two having the same common difference?


Find the number of ways to divide a convex $n$-sided polygon into $(n-2)$ triangles using non-intersecting diagonals.


Find the total number of sequences of length $n$ containing only letters $A$ and $B$ such that no two $A$s are next to each other. For example, for $n = 2$, there are $3$ possible sequences: $AB$, $BA$, and $BB$.


Solve the recursion $$a_n=\sum^{n-1}_{k=0}a_{k}a_{n-k-1}=a_0a_{n-1}+a_1a_{n-2}+\cdots+a_{n-1}a_0$$

where $a_0=a_1=1$.


Show the following sequence is convergent:

$$\frac{1}{1^2},\ \frac{1}{2^2},\ \frac{1}{3^2},\ \cdots,\ \frac{1}{n^2},\ \cdots$$


Compute the limit of the power series below as a rational function in $x$:

$$1\cdot 2 + (2\cdot 3)x + (3\cdot 4)x^2 + (4\cdot 5)x^3 + (5\cdot 6)x^4+\cdots,\qquad (|x| < 1)$$


Compute $$1-\frac{1\times 2}{2}+\frac{2\times 3}{2^2}-\frac{3\times 4}{2^3}+\frac{4\times 5}{2^4}-\cdots$$


It is well-known that the solution to the Fibonacci sequence is

$$F_n=\frac{1}{\sqrt{5}}\left(\left(\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^n-\left(\frac{1-\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^n\right)$$

Show that

$$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{F_{n+1}}{F_n}=\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}$$


Seven cubes, whose volumes are $1$, $8$, $27$, $64$, $125$, $216$, and $343$ cubic units, are stacked vertically to form a tower in which the volumes of the cubes decrease from bottom to top. Except for the bottom cube, the bottom face of each cube lies completely on top of the cube below it. What is the total surface area of the tower (including the bottom) in square units?


There exists a unique strictly increasing sequence of nonnegative integers $a_1 < a_2 < … < a_k$ such that\[\frac{2^{289}+1}{2^{17}+1} = 2^{a_1} + 2^{a_2} + … + 2^{a_k}.\]What is $k?$


Let $(a_n)$ and $(b_n)$ be the sequences of real numbers such that\[ (2 + i)^n = a_n + b_ni \]for all integers $n\geq 0$, where $i = \sqrt{-1}$. What is\[\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{a_nb_n}{7^n}\,?\]