Algabra

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51   
Let $a, b, c, d, e$ be distinct positive integers such that $a^4 + b^4 = c^4 + d^4 = e^5$. Show that $ac + bd$ is a composite number.

55   
There is a prime number $p$ such that $16p+1$ is the cube of a positive integer. Find $p$.

61   
Let $S$ be the set of all ordered triple of integers $(a_1,a_2,a_3)$ with $1 \le a_1,a_2,a_3 \le 10$. Each ordered triple in $S$ generates a sequence according to the rule $a_n=a_{n-1}\cdot | a_{n-2}-a_{n-3} |$ for all $n \ge 4$. Find the number of such sequences for which $a_n=0$ for some $n$.

62   
Let $f(x)$ be a third-degree polynomial with real coefficients satisfying $$|f(1)|=|f(2)|=|f(3)|=|f(5)|=|f(6)|=|f(7)|=12.$$ Find $|f(0)|$.

66   
For each integer $n \ge 2$, let $A(n)$ be the area of the region in the coordinate plane defined by the inequalities $1\le x \le n$ and $0\le y \le x \left\lfloor \sqrt x \right\rfloor$, where $\left\lfloor \sqrt x \right\rfloor$ is the greatest integer not exceeding $\sqrt x$. Find the number of values of $n$ with $2\le n \le 1000$ for which $A(n)$ is an integer.

73   

Steve says to Jon, 'I am thinking of a polynomial whose roots are all positive integers. The polynomial has the form $$P(x) = 2x^3-2ax^2+(a^2-81)x-c$$

for some positive integers $a$ and $c$. Can you tell me the values of $a$ and $c$?' After some calculations, Jon says, 'There is more than one such polynomial.' Steve says, 'You're right. Here is the value of $a$.' He writes down a positive integer and asks, 'Can you tell me the value of $c$?' Jon says, 'There are still two possible values of $c$.' Find the sum of the two possible values of $c$.


81   
Let $x$ and $y$ be real numbers satisfying $x^4y^5+y^4x^5=810$ and $x^3y^6+y^3x^6=945$. Evaluate $2x^3+(xy)^3+2y^3$.

91   
Let $x_1< x_2 < x_3$ be the three real roots of the equation $\sqrt{2014} x^3 - 4029x^2 + 2 = 0$. Find $x_2(x_1+x_3)$.

96   
Let $m$ be the largest real solution to the equation$$\frac{3}{x-3}+\frac{5}{x-5}+\frac{17}{x-17}+\frac{19}{x-19}=x^2-11x-4$$There are positive integers $a$, $b$, and $c$ such that $m=a+\sqrt{b+\sqrt{c}}$. Find $a+b+c$.

101   
The repeating decimals $0.abab\overline{ab}$ and $0.abcabc\overline{abc}$ satisfy \[0.abab\overline{ab}+0.abcabc\overline{abc}=\frac{33}{37},\] where $a$, $b$, and $c$ are (not necessarily distinct) digits. Find the three digit number $abc$.

104   
Let $f(x)=(x^2+3x+2)^{cos(\pi x)}$. Find the sum of all positive integers $n$ for which \[\left |\sum_{k=1}^nlog_{10}f(k)\right|=1.\]

120   
Let $f(x) = x^4 + ax^3 + bx^2 + cx + d$. If $f(-1) = -1$, $f(2)=-4$, $f(-3) = -9$, and $f(4) = -16$. Find $f(1)$.

156   
Solve in positive integers $x^2 - 4xy + 5y^2 = 169$.

160   
Solve in integers the question $x+y=x^2 -xy + y^2$.

168   
Solve in integers $\frac{x+y}{x^2-xy+y^2}=\frac{3}{7}$

172   
Prove the product of 4 consecutive positive integers is a perfect square plus 1.

173   
For any arithmetic sequence whose terms are all positive integers, show that if one term is a perfect square, this sequence must have infinite number of terms which are perfect squares.

175   
Prove there exist infinite number of positive integer $a$ such that for any positive integer $n$, $n^4 + a$ is not a prime number.

178   
Find all positive integer $n$ such that $(3^{2n+1} -2^{2n+1}- 6^n)$ is a composite number.

184   
The real root of the equation $8x^3 - 3x^2 - 3x - 1 = 0$ can be written in the form $\frac{\sqrt[3]a + \sqrt[3]b + 1}{c}$, where $a$, $b$, and $c$ are positive integers. Find $a+b+c$.

187   
The domain of the function $f(x) = \arcsin(\log_{m}(nx))$ is a closed interval of length $\frac{1}{2013}$ , where $m$ and $n$ are positive integers and $m>1$. Find the remainder when the smallest possible sum $m+n$ is divided by 1000.

196   
Positive integers $a$ and $b$ satisfy the condition \[\log_2(\log_{2^a}(\log_{2^b}(2^{1000}))) = 0.\] Find the sum of all possible values of $a+b$.

197   
A large candle is $119$ centimeters tall. It is designed to burn down more quickly when it is first lit and more slowly as it approaches its bottom. Specifically, the candle takes $10$ seconds to burn down the first centimeter from the top, $20$ seconds to burn down the second centimeter, and $10k$ seconds to burn down the $k$-th centimeter. Suppose it takes $T$ seconds for the candle to burn down completely. Then $\tfrac{T}{2}$ seconds after it is lit, the candle's height in centimeters will be $h$. Find $10h$.

205   
Let $A = \{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7\}$, and let $N$ be the number of functions $f$ from set $A$ to set $A$ such that $f(f(x))$ is a constant function. Find the remainder when $N$ is divided by $1000$.

211   
The terms of an arithmetic sequence add to $715$. The first term of the sequence is increased by $1$, the second term is increased by $3$, the third term is increased by $5$, and in general, the $k$th term is increased by the $k$th odd positive integer. The terms of the new sequence add to $836$. Find the sum of the first, last, and middle terms of the original sequence.

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