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Prove that the sum $$\sqrt{1001^2 + 1} + \sqrt{1002^2 + 1} + \cdots + \sqrt{2000^2 + 1}$$ is irrational.

Determine all positive integer $n$ such that the following equation is solvable in integers: $$x^n + (2+x)^n + (2-x)^n = 0$$


Find, with proof, all ordered pairs of positive integers $(a, b)$ with the following property: there exist positive integers $r$, $s$, and $t$ such that for all $n$ for which both sides are defined, $$\binom{\binom{n}{a}}{b}=r\binom{n+s}{t}$$