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Show that for any positive integer $n$, the value of $\displaystyle\sum_{k=0}^{n}2^{3k}\binom{2n+1}{2k+1}$ is not a multiple of $5$.


Let $a_0$, $a_1$, $a_2$, $\cdots$ be an increasing sequence of non-negative integers such that every non-negative integer can be expressed uniquely in the form of $(a_i + 2a_j+4a_k)$ where $i$, $j$, and $k$ are not necessarily distinct. Determine $a_{1998}$.


Let $p$ be an odd prime number. Find the number of subsets $\mathbb{A}$ of the set $\{1, 2, \cdots, 2p\}$ such that $\mathbb{A}$ has exactly $p$ elements and the sum of all elements in $\mathbb{A}$ is divisible by $p$.


In a sports contest, there were $m$ medals awarded on $n$ successive days ($n > 1$). On the first day, one medal and $1/7$ of the remaining $(m − 1)$ medals were awarded. On the second day, two medals and $1/7$ of the now remaining medals were awarded; and so on. On the $n^{th}$ and last day, the remaining $n$ medals were awarded. How many days did the contest last, and how many medals were awarded altogether?


A permutation $\{x_1,\ x_2,\ \cdots,\ x_{2n}\}$ of the set $\{1,\ 2,\ \cdots,\ 2n\}$, where $n$ is a positive integer, is said to have property $P$ if $\mid x_i − x_{i+1}\mid = n$ for at least one $i$ in $\{1,\ 2,\ \cdots,\ 2n − 1\}$. Show that, for each $n$, there are more permutations with property $P$ than without.